Many people have a vague idea about what Linux is. Then Linux, GNU / Linux, Kernel, Distro, Ubuntu, Linux Mint, Fedora, Manjaro, Kubuntu, Lubuntu. Let’s see if the patch can be extended a little more today—best Linux Distributions List For Beginner 99% ( Programming ).
What is Linux?
As you may have gathered, Linux is an operating system. That is not undividedly wrong. Not correctly again. Linux is a kernel. So what is this kernel again? It is one of the various important parts of an operating system. The kernel’s job is to build the relationship connecting hardware and software.
Windows also has a kernel called NT, and the Mac OS kernel is XNU. However, these kernels are secured sources. The Linux kernel is a free source. What are the benefits of open source? Let’s not go into the information now, and the simple answer is that no one can create their personal OS based on XNU and NT or Mac OS or Windows. Apple and Windows have put these under their control. And Linux? Open to everyone!
Creating a kernel but not a very straightforward thing! And it’s amazing to make it open source. So many operating systems have been generated based on the Linux kernel, such as Ubuntu, Fedora, Linux Mint, Manjaro, etc. The funny thing is that Microsoft itself uses the Linux kernel in their Azure project because the NT kernel is not proper there. Google has also built its Chrome OS, based on Android Linux.
As I said earlier, it is not uniquely wrong to call Linux an operating system. In fact, it should be GNU / Linux. GNU is a free software organization with which Linux was developed. Open-source licensing has become successful mainly through GNU, and GNU / Linux can be called GNU’s operating system.
So, just saying Linux means Linux kernel, and GNU / Linux means operating system. However, no one must say such a difficult word, so the operating system is often called just Linux, and the general public further understands it. In this article, we will often use only Linux to refer to the Linux operating policy.
However, not all Linux-based distros refer to GNU / Linux. For example, the Android phones we use also have a Linux kernel at their core. However, Android is not specifically pure Linux. They use a modified version of the Linux kernel and do not use GNU components. So Android can be called Linux based, but not GNU / Linux. ( Best Linux distributions list )
Linux distro and distro family –
The word GNU / Linux operating system, however, does not assign to just one operating system. There are several operating systems based on the Linux kernel. You may have discovered the names of some of them. For example, Debian, Ubuntu, Linux Mint, Red Hat, Fedora, Arch, Manjaro, Solas, etc. Each of these operating systems is called a Linux administration or Linux distro for short.
Interestingly, Linux distros are also usually open source. So it can be seen that more distros are developed based on one distro. For example, Debian is an independently developed Linux distro, while Ubuntu is built on Debian, making it simpler and more functional. There are other Debian-based distros like Dipin, MX Linux, Ubuntu, and many more major.
Among them, Ubuntu is particularly popular in the desktop world. Ubuntu has been made simpler, more user-friendly, and practical than Debian. The list of Ubuntu-based distros is also quite extensive. These include well-known names like Linux Mint, Pop OS, Zarin OS, Elementary OS, etc. There is, of course, a special version of the Linux Mint that is immediately Debian-based, the Linux Mint Debian Edition.
A distro based on them (to be continued) collectively is a distro family. That is, Ubuntu, Mint, Pop, Zarin, Elementary are all members of the Ubuntu family, including the Deepin, MX Linux, Linux Mint, Debian Edition, and so on. Similarly, in the Arch family, there are Arch, Mangrove, Magpie, Entargos, etc., St. OS, Fidora, etc., in the Red Hat family.
The file formats of Red Hat and Debian are .rpm and .deb, often referring to their parents’ distros as RPM-based or Deb-based. Arch’s package handler Pacman says the Arch family is sometimes referred to as Pacman-based. There are also several Linux distros outside the Debian, Red Hat, and Arch families, such as Solas, Slackware, Gentu, etc. ( Best Linux distributions list )
Linux for Everyone
Linux distros are, but many, and various distros have different utilities. Some people like this understand only kali Linux to say Linux. That is, the idea is that hackers use Linux. Kali Linux is actually a penetration testing (penetration verification) distro used for security purposes, and for that reason, it is also popular for hacking.
There is another operating system, Gentoo, which does not have a natural installer. It may need a few days to install on the PC manually. Again, some distros may be made for servers; some may be innumerable suitable for experts. In fact, Linux can meet virtually all operating systems’ needs because Linux allows you to make adjustments as needed.
So, if such a distro is delivered over to an ordinary user like me, they are not supposed to like it simply because these were not made for the public. Where we can browse the net, play audio and video, manage office applications, do the things we require every day, and so on. Some of these wonderful OS include Mint, Ubuntu, Dipin, Elementary, Mangro, Magpie, MX, Solas, etc.
Of course, Linux is still common popular in the professional world. Surprisingly, according to TOP 500 data, all of the 500 various powerful supercomputers of the present time use Linux. Unix was popular in this world previously, but now there is no Unix. Repeat in the world of servers, Linux has a stronghold. For example, you may have remarked that Linux hosting is more familiar among hosts.
So there is no Linux user on the desktop? Of course, there is. Net Market Share has recently been considered for around 3% of desktop users. The amount may not seem very high, but not very low, but 1 in every 30 people. One thing is for positive, and many people have Windows and Linux connected on their PCs together so that the real number may be a bit higher.
However, for those who do development work, the current use of Linux is much higher. According to the Stack Overflow Developer Survey 2020, 55% of the 53,743 people surveyed accept the Linux platform, 53.1% Windows, and 24% Mac OS. The context will not equal 100% here, as many have complicated platform users. ( Best Linux distributions list )
In the world of smartphones, we have to discuss Android. Of course, the pure Linux phone has not yet obtained popularity, or it can be said that it is simply in its infancy. So far, however, there are individual projects underway with Linux phones. Of meticulous note is the Pine64 company’s Pinephone, which is obtainable at $ 150 (2/16) and $ 200 (3/32). However, it is not yet proper for everyday use in terms of software, similar to Android.
Pure Linux phones have numerous advantages. You can use your preference’s operating system, such as Ubuntu Touch (Ubiports), Plasma Mobile, Debian Fosh, Manjaro, Postmarket OS, etc. Note that they are furthermore in the development stage. Linux has as many other services as discussed later, most of which also implement to Linux phones, almost the same kind of knowledge on PC-smartphones.
But that doesn’t happen on Android. Updates are performed for a maximum of two-three years, and some devices don’t. The iPhone proposes a bit more, but as long as the operating system is determined on the Linux phone, you get updates. Even if one of the operating systems stops originating, you have more options at hand. In fact, if there is no exceptional event, you are getting a lifetime update. ( Best Linux distributions list )
In simple terms, the desktop environment, DE, is the look of your desktop for a summary. Several distros offer multiple desktop environments by default. There is also an occasion to install the DE of your choice. The desktop environment defines a substantial part of the Linux experience.
To give an example, Ubuntu is ready in several desktop interfaces. Their original version used GNOME DE. Other editions include Kubuntu, Lubuntu, Xubuntu, Ubuntu Mate, Ubuntu Bajbi. In the case of Ubuntu, they are summoned by Ubuntu Flavor. These flavors are used by GNOME, KDE, LXQUET, XFCE, Mate, and Bajbi Desktop individually.
But it’s not similar to a theme at all. On the contrary, the appearance of the desktop, animation, utilities, support usage, and many other things changed. Again, DEOs are normally quite customizable. There are occasions to customize themes, icon themes, docs, or panels.
Of program, no matter which DE-E you use, all desktop environment publications of the same distro have some standard features. For example, all Ubuntu’s official flavors are canonically produced, released concurrently, and the software can be established in the same way, the same container is used, updates are given identically, etc.
Again, using one DE in various distros does not make them one. There are significant differences in functionality and features. Put, increasing the DE changes the outside, the inside stays the same. ( Best Linux distributions list )
I was describing with the example of Ubuntu. In the case of another distro, too, many offer various DEs. Linux Mint is possible in three desktop environments, Cinnamon, XFCE, and Mate. Manjaro is available in more extra environments, GNOME, KDE, XFCE, Bajbi, Cinnamon, LXDE, LXQUET, Mate. In Fedora, the main environment is GNOME, and the other versions are called Fedora Spins, including KDE, XFCE, Mate Compiz, Cinnamon, LXDE, LXQUET, SOAS, etc.
Again amazing distros only offer one environment. For illustration, Pop OS GNOME Desktop, Dipin Desktop in Dipin, Pantheon Desktop in Elementary. Interestingly, in most circumstances, any DE can be established in any of the distros, and there is even an occasion to use multiple DEs at various times.
Although it is normally not advisable to install different DE in this way, as the succession is not always perfect, repeatedly, different utilities like file manager, settings display multiple. Moreover, there may be different problems. ( Best Linux distributions list )
Linux is a kernel. GNU / Linux is an operating method made up of the Linux kernel + other GNU elements, also called Linux. One operating system is called Linux Distro. A Linux distro and all the Linux distros that originate from it are a distro family. Not all Linux distros (e.g., Android) are GNU / Linux. Destro’s user interface is unstable in GNU / Linux, and the interface is called the desktop environment.
The window manager improves the position and presentation of the elements. The window manager can be a part of the desktop atmosphere and can be used independently instead of in the desktop environment. The desktop interface combines more functions and color techniques.
Keyboard usage is high in Window Administrator. There are plenty of shortcuts that can be practiced efficiently. There are numerous window managers, including i3, wonderful, bspwm, Openbox. These allow tiling, that is, providing the windows like tiles. For a mixture of reasons, some geek-level people prefer to use a window administrator instead of a colorful DE.
Of course, the window manager is not proper for general users like me, because it needs skill. ( Best Linux distributions list )
Linux is usually free
We’ve previously figured out several reasons to practice Linux. For illustration, Linux is customarily available for free and not simply that but also has the autonomy to add, revise, and distribute, which is called FOSS (Free and Open Source Software). Of course, free here involves free, not always that free. For example, the core version of Zarin OS is available, but the Ultimate version must be obtained. Fedora is available again, but upstream is Red Hat Linux Commercial (but both are unrestricted sources).
Open the software
In the world of Linux, there is an affluence of free and open-source software. There are amazing, great apps that are only possible for Linux. For example, GParted (Partition Editor), Geary (Email Client), Kalzium (Periodic Table), Kazam (Screen Recorder), Okular (PDF Viewer), Celluloid (Video Player), etc.
Repeatedly there are a few distro-specific, i.e., single apps for specific distros. There are amazing apps in the App Center of Elementary, which are not usable on Windows or other Linux. Endless OS has some excellent learning apps, which are restricted just there. ( Best Linux distributions list )
Since several distros have a separate focus, policy, user base, advantages-disadvantages, you can obtain the one suitable for your choice. For example, Ubuntu is performed for nearly all types of users; Ubuntu is for desktop as properly as IoT, server, cloud, and raspberry pie. Pop OS (Pop! _OS) is made primarily for developers. Its workflow is intended to be multitasking, effective, and convenient for keyboard exploration. Linux Mint and Zarin OS are functional so that new users can get used to Linux quickly. Arch Linux is becoming for those who are well versed and like to create everything on their own. Deepin or Elementary OS is for those who are studying for a very nice desktop.
There are many possibilities for customization. Changeable from wallpaper to the kernel version. You are getting genuine administration or root introduction. There is an opportunity to arrange everything on your own.
The different thing is that most of the Linux desktops are quite lightweight. Older PCs, where more different versions of Windows are not well supported, may require to use XP even at this time, you can produce new vitality by using Linux. ( Best Linux distributions list )
The statistics I discussed a while ago must have remarked that developers’ tendency to use Linux is extremely higher. There are special advantages to using Linux for developers. And I can’t describe exactly, using Linux creates interest in getting more concerning computer-related.
Not to discuss security and privacy; this way, Linux is everywhere safer. There is a general belief that there is no virus in Linux. It’s not like that, Linux can be affected, but it’s improbable. There is no obligation to be afraid of installing software, applying USB devices.
Linux software is very straightforward to install. You don’t just go to Google to find and download; there is no fear of downloading viruses, preferably software. For greatest software, go to the software administrator, search or find in the category, succeed the install button, enter the password. Both download and install will be ingested together. However, there are several differences, much like connecting from the Play Store on Android. ( Best Linux distributions list )
The Linux similarity is also very nice. If you have a problem, you can reasonably find a solution by searching online, or if not, you can take the help of numerous Linux forums. For example, LinuxQuestions.org, LINUX.ORG Forums, etc. Distros also often have their individual forums.
This is extremely fun of running Linux. What can be done on the black screen of the terminal is a surprise. Not that you ought to use a terminal to run Linux, but the celebration of Linux is there.
Problems with Linux
Of course, I’m not saying Linux is ideal. Particularly when we are familiar with Windows from the origin of life, it is difficult to adjust to a new environment. Usually, it takes a while to recognize the new UI and usage.
The first big obstacle that many newcomers to Linux face is that the most familiar software on Windows is not recommended on Linux. You can also obtain the most current software, such as Firefox, Chrome, VLC, Zoom, CodeBlocks, Atom, etc., in Linux. Nevertheless, the two most unsupported names are Adobe and Microsoft Office.
GIMP (Photo Editor), Inkscape (Vector Graphics Editor), Krita (Photo Editor + Digital Drawing), Kdenlive (Video Editor), Kdenlive (Video Editor), Scribus (Publishing Software),. Free means, but this does not mean that this software is less practical. You can also try certain on Windows.
Many times there are problems with device support. While upgrading to Linux Kernel 5.8 may resolve AMD’s new hardware, Nvidia needs some proprietary drivers, which are normally offered during ISO downloads or installs. Or you can attach it after installation. ( Best Linux distributions list )
It is generally seen that distros are published according to a certain rule. Some distros follow this rule very rigorously. For example, Ubuntu produces one new release every 6 months and one LTS release every 2 years. Again, Arch is seen to be continually upgrading.
Roughly conversing, we can split the release program into two parts: point release and rolling release.
- Fixed release/point release: New important releases are issued from time to time to make a big difference. And natural minor OS updates, software updates, bug fixes, security patches all come. Ubuntu is a point discharge distro.
- Rolling Release: There are frequent updates. The update appears almost instantly after the release of a new version of any software. If you do not have a good speed attachment, installing updates will be time-consuming. Arch is a rolling statement distro.
LTS: There is a specific type of point release, called LTS or Long Term Support. These reports provide more support and updates than traditional releases. For example, Ubuntu provides bug fixes, updates, and support for 9 months in general releases, but 5 years payment in LTS versions and several cases extended maintenance (paid for enterprise use / free personal use).
In several cases, especially for prolific work or official work, upgrading the OS for a few days in a row is a great risk. It is still seen that some offices are practicing XP or 7. LTS stories come in handy in such situations. ( Best Linux distributions list )
There are several distros. We are speaking briefly about a few. Ubuntu-based distros are available in new situations, as they have rich community maintenance and good security. Besides, Manjaro is not bad either.
When Ubuntu was originated in 2004, Linux was still relatively unknown in the desktop world. Linux turns around the highly professional world of servers or supercomputers. From there, Ubuntu provides a lot to making Linux more friendly on the desktop. The ancient African word Ubuntu (oǒ’boǒntoō) means quite nice, ‘Humanity to Others’, humanity for the rest. It has a different meaning, and I am what I am because of who we are all. For everyone, I am similar to me.
Ubuntu is a member of the Debian family. Debian himself is a scarce stubborn, of course. But Ubuntu is very straightforward to use and an excellent distro. This is a point discharge distro. Ubuntu brings two new announcements a year (April and December), with 9 months of support. On the other hand, they bring LTS editions every 2 years, where maintenance is given for at least 5 years.
Ubuntu normally refers to the GNOME edition. Of course, Ubuntu’s GNOME is considerably customized, where new users can quickly adapt. There is also Dark Mode. There is a hint of Orange and Purple completely the UI, which is quite extraordinary.
However, it has some more extra flavors. For example, Kubuntu, Lubuntu, Xubuntu, Ubuntu Mate, Ubuntu Budgie, KDE, XCt, LFQ, MF, And Budgie.
Furthermore, there is a multimedia focused alternative, Ubuntu Studio, XFCE has been practiced here so far, but the next version is to change to KDE. There is also a different Chinese variant, Ubuntu Kylin’s desktop UKUI. There are some unofficial flavors, the two common notable being Deepin Desktop Environment as strong as Ubuntu DDE, Ubuntu Cinnamon Remix with Cinnamon Desktop.
Ubuntu is more than just an operating system. Besides desktop, there is also Ubuntu for IoT, server, cloud, raspberry pie. There is a minimal installation facility for minimalists. There are different flavors to match the taste. There is an LTS release for excellent stability. Ubuntu has shown loyalty in its 16-year journey. Tutorials, community support, everything is adequate. So, Ubuntu can be chosen for a seamless Linux experience. ( Best Linux distributions list )
Linux Mint has a unique reputation for being user pleasant. Their purpose is to create a smooth, elegant, and relaxed OS that is both strong and easy to use. Linux Mint is based on the LTS variant of Ubuntu. This is a point discharge distro.
Linux Mint is particularly recommended for customary users and those who are new to Linux. Because it is very straightforward to use. The interface is quite popular, comparable to Windows. So Windows users can use it regularly. Mint has been concentrated on newcomers.
Mint’s welcome screen will help you improve. The welcome screen is really effective on what can be done and how to do it after introducing the new system. Contains a custom reporting mechanism. Any updates, drivers, codecs, language applications are expected to be installed here. There is also a backup utility (timeshift), which can be practiced to undo any system problems.
In terms of the desktop background, Linux Mint is really offered in three conditions. Cinnamon, Mate, and XFCE. All three are quite lightweight and customizable. Matte is further customizable, and XFCE is the most volatile. However, the flagship of Linux Mint is Cinnamon or Cinnamon. This is something they develop themselves. The compound of cinnamon with mint sheets is quite good.
Linux Mint has light, semi-dark and somber themes with different color strokes. Mint has a green finish to the default theme. The theme of their Mint-Y group is Flat and Modern, and the Mint-X series is classic and elegant. Aside from this, there is an excuse to use any other GTK theme.
Since Ubuntu publishes the LTS version every two years, each release of the Linux Mint within this period is based on the previous LTS version of Ubuntu. This results in more reliable stability, but those who favor to stay up to date may not like the legend so much. ( Best Linux distributions list )
Similar to Linux Mint, Jarin OSO is made with newcomers in mind. Zarin OS has been specifically designed as a good option to Windows and Mac OS to make PCs easier, more durable, more strong, more confident. It also practices the LTS version of Ubuntu. Updated versions of amazing apps are possible from Ubuntu’s container and Zarin OS’s own container, which is a plus point from Mint.
There are numerous editions of Zarin OS. Core, Ultimate, Education, and the light version of several of them. The Ultimate and Ultimate Lite Editions are not available. The rest of the publications are free. Everything in the core version introduces some supplementary apps, layouts, and support in the Ultimate version. And instructional versions are included in the education version.
The default DE of Zarin OS is GNOME, which needs at least 2 GB of RAM to run, but it is more satisfying to have 4 GB of RAM. On the other hand, the Lite Edition uses the XFCE desktop, which is sufficient to run 1 GB of RAM. Nevertheless, both DEs have a nice touch of customization, so the distinction between them is not too much. Both are uniformly beautiful, but the animation is not the same in the light version, and it is a little more manageable, but, at the same time, more customizable.
I want to discuss one of the apps of Zarin OS, which is Zarin Connect. It is in combination with Android. Nowadays, since nearly everyone has an Android, it is suitable to have such an app pre-installed. Of course, it is not in the lite version. ( Best Linux distributions list )
System76, the maker of Pop! _OS, is fundamentally a hardware company. They have numerous Linux laptops, desktops, and minicomputers. Later they came up with their personal operating system. Pop OSK is quite new, and it began its journey in 2016. However, it has obtained good popularity in a short time, and it is including my favorite distro.
Pop OS is an Ubuntu-based distro. Its announcement schedule is very related to Ubuntu’s, meaning that a few days after the new version of Ubuntu’s announcement, they realize that version-based Pop OS. The central feature of Pop OS is that it is created primarily for developers. It uses the GNOME desktop, but GNOME has a much purer quality than Ubuntu, although several additional functionalities are involved.
It is quite impressive to look at, clean, and stylish. Having light or deep mode. Its workflow is much different from the workflow of conventional Windows. You can see in the picture that there is no minimize or maximize switch in the window. Nor is there a task manager.
You can crack the app from the Activities Overview, switch, and manage it in different workspaces. It may take a while to get adapted to this method in new locations, but it is quite nice once you get utilized to it. And different keyboard shortcuts perform the system more efficient. There is also the possibility of adding a minimize maximizing button, dock, or decoration using the tweak tool and extension if required.
But the best information about pop OS is the pop shell. The pop shell executes GNOME desktop more utilitarian. Pop Shell has tiling comments, similar to tiling window administrators, that can be turned on or off as required. If turned on, the windows are painted like an image, and you can use the console instead of the mouse to resize as needed, proceed to another workspace, and originate new apps.
As I said, keyboard exploration is a special specialty for Pop OS developers and one of the features of Pop Shell that I find extraordinary. Apps can be applied on and off; window resizes, move, workspace adjustments can be made with almost all exploration keyboards, which is very serviceable.
In a short time, a good amount of users of Pop OS have been created. Their support is also quite good. Repeat most of the tutorials made for Ubuntu can also be implemented to the pop OS. All in all, Pop OS is a great choice, particularly for developers. ( Best Linux distributions list )
Dipin is an outstanding example of how wonderful an operating system can be. This Chinese Linux distribution can comfortably top the list of the various excellent operating systems. This, of course, is not Ubuntu-based but Debian based. It’s also a point discharge distro, but strict like Ubuntu doesn’t control any program.
Dipin uses its individual developed Dipin Desktop Environment (DDE). One of the nice pieces of information about Deepin OS is that text readers, system monitors, file administrators, software managers, audio-video professionals, etc., have developed their own, resulting in nice flexibility.
With elegance, Deepin’s interface is quite manageable and easy to use. In terms of customizability, however, it lags following others. There is no field for general use of other themes outside of applicable light and dark mode. However, there is an excuse to change the accent color, icon theme, panel style, and environment. ( Best Linux distributions list )
Arch is not only for novices; it also needs a lot of skill to install. This distro is scarcely different. Here at the beginning, only the command line is given, annihilation else. Installation is done on the command line. Then you have to install the desktop interface or window handler and the required software of your choice.
The arch is particularly suitable for those who like to manage everything on their own. Of course, you have to collect skills to run it. ArchWiki is an invaluable guideline for running arches. They also have discussions. Arch Linux is a rolling announcement distro, meaning it is continually updated, and up-to-date software is available. It was developed individually using the Linux kernel, not any other distro based.
One of the numerous things about Arch Linux is the AUR or Arch User Repository. We have addressed this in the software installation section.
Although there are astounding, nice aspects of Arch Linux, it isn’t straightforward to use. Here begins Manjaro Linux, which is based on Arch Linux. The maintenance of the arch is located in Manjaro, and repeat it is not difficult to use. So this German-based distro is quite familiar. Like Arch, it’s a rolling announcement.
While the community of Manjaro is not as large as Ubuntu, it is a well-known name in the system of Linux, and assistance is not wrong here either. Furthermore, ArchieWiki, ManjaroWiki, and User Design are quite detailed and helpful.
Manjaro is possible in several desktop interfaces. Of these, KDE, GNOME, and XFCE are possible as official, and LXDE, Mate, LXQueet, Cinnamon, and Bajbi are possible as desktop community editions. Every desktop out of the box in Manjaro is pretty nice.
Aside from this, there are some more window manager based editions and an architect version for advanced users. Official and community announcements are no different in terms of loyalty and maintenance. These use the same repo and are regulated by Manjaro maintainers. Manjaro Editions produces two types of ISO. Regular and minimal.
Pamac is preinstalled here as the software manager. Although the interface is not really colorful, it is simple to use and works quicker than several other graphical software managers. One of the advantages of this is that several software can be selected and installed simultaneously, and AUR, Snap, Flatpak are supported. ( Best Linux distributions list )
Solas is a different, independently developed distro. This is also a rolling statement. Solas has four editions, Bajbi, Nome, Mate, and KDE Plasma. Bajbi DE to improve their own. It has a really bold look, and the dark mode is especially dark.
The numerous thing about Solas is that it is blazing fast. Despite being a hard disk, it becomes on in 20 seconds and takes about 3-4 seconds to shut down, conjectured to be faster if you have SSD. App opening, closing, switching assignments are quite fast. This smoothness gives a wonderful experience.
Solas is offered for general home users. It has been developed as an operating system ideal for day-to-day tasks on personal computers. The most advanced apps, called Rolling Release, can be located here. As individually developed, Solas has its own repository, container manager, and software center. Their packaging manager is eopkg.
The software center also seems to be quite speedy. Important and popular software is given in the repository. Bajbi’s different applets and themes can also be installed immediately from the software center. However, there is a big limitation: there is no fundamental way to install software outside the container. As a result, some software may be challenging to read or maybe the only way to run from the beginning. Ubuntu has PPA / deb, Fidora has RPM, Arch has AUR, but there is nothing like that.
As Solas develops autonomously, it is very complex and gives a different kind of experience to other Linux users. However, its community is not as big as Ubuntu or Arch, or Fidora family. Online support for this is relatively low. Also, the repository is not rich enough. And it still felt the requirement for further development. ( Best Linux distributions list )
Fedora is a community edition of Red Hat Enterprise Linux. Redhat Commercial, but Fidora is ready for free. It is RPM-based. Although it is a point freedom distro, released twice a year, automatic software updates are much like rolling releases. Let me tell you, my involvement with Fedora is concise. That’s why I don’t know enough about Fidora myself.
Fedora’s original edition has GNOME and amazing other spins, such as KDE, XFCE, Mate Compiz, Cinnamon, LXDE, LXQUET, SOAS, etc. Fedora can be practiced for pure knowledge of desktop interfaces, as there is no customization out of the box.
Of program, this is not the case with me. But a taste of purity is found in Fedora, and there is an opportunity to customize like yourself. Fedora can also be called a purist in terms of software. The repository probably contains only true open-source software. Other software can be installed from society maintained RPM Fusion or .rpm files.
Kali Linux, Parrot Security OS, Black Arch
I’ve never run into these matters. Why do many people understand these OSs like Linux? These are true security, intrusion checks are a priority for such things, and yes, they are also excellent for hackers. However, these were not performed for the common people. So I do not suggest these operating systems experience Linux.
Now we are going to explain some desktop environments. This is really a matter of personal preference and the edition of PC configuration, and a DE can be chosen.
GNOME is apparently the most popular DE. Quite venerable, and supplementary functionality can be added here using extensions. Using GNOME needs a relatively good configuration. Not so much, 2 GB will run on RAM, but 4 GB is more satisfying.
GNOME’s workflow is a bit complex, which has been highlighted in discussions concerning pop OS. And it can be customized to your liking utilizing tweak tools and extensions. Vanilla or stock gnome does not have a maximize or minimize switch, and you have to multiply click or drag upwards or maximize from the right-click menu. There is a minimize security in the right-click menu, but GNOME doesn’t usually require this since here’s how to configure it in the workflow.
This heterogeneous workflow from GNOME is unknown at first, but once you get utilized to it, it’s a numerous experience, much several from Windows or any other DE. Of course, not all distros, such as Ubuntu or Manjaro, have customized the GNOME desktop to profit newcomers. ( Best Linux distributions list )
Probably the most excellent and most customizable DE is KDE Plasma. Once you go to the settings, you can understand how several options have been bootlegged here. Even though there are many excellent features, it is straightforward to use because you don’t require to use the features you don’t need. And KDE is extremely well integrated, which can be appointed.
KDE has the capacity to use widgets on desktops and panels. If you memorize Windows 8, you could use gadgets on the desktop. But KDE’s widget is perfectly like that, a little more than that. The corresponding widget can be used on panels and desktops. And you can download new widgets.
No necessary to google search or do anything to download new themes, icons, window borders, cursor themes, widgets, wallpapers, etc., in KDE. You can download and use it immediately from the settings through the Add New option. KDE has an extraordinary relationship with Android. Android and KDE can be combined nicely through KDE Connect.
Interestingly, despite having several advanced features, animations, and customizability, it does not consume too numerous resources. Used on 2 GB RAM PC. ( Best Linux distributions list )
In a word, if you require to publish XFCE, you have to say. For those who like minimalism, simplicity, they should like XFCE. It’s also very customizable but lags behind KDE.
However, it can be customized to provide a very nice look. Manjaro or Linux Mint or Zarin OS Lite version is really nicely customized XFCE. In the picture below, I once customized Jubuntu.
No conclusion, minimize, etc., the animation is used in XFCE. As a consequence, at first, I felt quite uneasy. But presently that it has become accustomed to it, it seems rather an interest, the speed of work increases. For those who find excellence in Simple, XFCE is famous for them and them. XFCE can be run easily with 1 GB RAM. XFCE can be an attractive solution for some post-World War II Windows XP-powered PCs.
The Cinnamon desktop is the DE of the modern operating system Mint. It is also extremely customizable. Except for a few DEs, all Linux DEs are extremely customizable. Simple and beautiful. And Cinnamon is really user friendly. This is a fork from GNOME 3, although matches with GNOME can no extended be found. Not in terms of looks, not in terms of currency.
KDE is not as shaky as Cinnamon. And XFCE is not as easy as Cinnamon. The default Mint Y theme and icons on the Cinnamon desktop are extremely nice to me, and it looks pretty. Its interface will not be different for Windows users. This suggests that after installation, you will find a panel at the bottom and menus, app menu, system tray, etc., in the same position as Windows.
Themes, icons, applets, etc., like KDE, can additionally be downloaded from the cinema settings. There are wonderful animation and a user-friendly atmosphere. It is quite lightweight but imperceptibly less than XFCE. ( Best Linux distributions list )
Fork on the desktop GNOME 2. After changing from GNOME 2 to GNOME 3, the GNOME desktop underwent significant changes, which several did not like. That is the origin of the Mate desktop. At this point, I believe it gives a little old feel. Since GNOME 2 was launched in 2010, it can be efficiently run on more traditional PCs.
Mate is also extremely customizable as always, probably the next place in KDE will be Mate. The excellent effect can be given here, particularly using the Compiz Window Manager.
LXQt / LXDE
It’s the lightest on our menu. 512 MB is also thought to run in Radham. Using the LXDE GTK2 (GIMP ToolKit 2) library. Later LXQt was built because GTK3 developers did not believe it was appropriate, using the Qt (pronunciation cute) library. Both are currently under development.
In the LXDE Idol position, it only takes approximately 200 MB of RAM. The LXQt is about 100 MB more further than that. Quite nice as lightweight. For those whose arrangement is not very good, these two are suitable. Of course, the functionality is a bit more limited than XFCE. ( Best Linux distributions list )
Linux disproved differs in installers and installation methods. Official documentation of the concerned distro can help in this regard. However, although the installers look a bit different and some of the steps are slightly side-by-side, there is usually not much difference in the installation method in general. I am writing here very briefly. If necessary, you can take the help of someone experienced in Linux.
Linux can be established by formatting the entire hard disk or repairing Windows with Windows (dual boot). First, you must download the ISO file of the respective district and build a bootable disk. If it is a DVD, write it down. Ventry seemed to be the most comfortable for a pen drive.
If you do not understand your system MBR or GPT, right-click on the Start switch and turn on Command Prompt (Admin) or Powershell (Admin). Here first, type diskpart and then type archive disk. Now notice the Gpt cell. It is clear in the image below. This means my partition table is MBR, and if there is a * sign, then your partition table is GPT.
We require to know if the system is in UEFI or Legacy mode. To do this, press Windows + R, the Run Box will rise. From there, type msinfo32 and press enter. Now, look at the BIOS Method box, whether it is Legacy or UEFI.
If you have Windows 8 / 8.1 / 10 and UEFI system and you require to boot dual, you need to incapacitate it if you have Protected Boot enabled. See this tutorial. With Fast Startup, it is sufficient to keep it closed. Uncheck Turn on fast startup from Control Panel> Hardware and Sound> Power Options> System Settings> Choose what the power buttons do.
If you require to install alongside Windows, then arrange at least 20-30 GB of place to install Linux. The MBR system cannot have more than 4 primary partitions, so if you previously have 4 partitions, empty one completely. It is advisable to keep a backup of the essential files. Create Unallocated Space from Windows Partition Manager in Free Space. And if you need to format the whole hard disk instead of Windows, you don’t need to do anything; back up everything you require.
Remarkable! You will not understand partitions (C, D, E) like this when you install Linux. So memorize the whole size and free space of the drive you want to install Linux or write it down somewhere because we have to recognize the drive-by viewing at the size.
Immediately boot from the created bootable disk. Some distros enable you to play live without installing, in which case you can watch live. Confidently, the rest of the steps during installation (language selection, time zone, account production type) will not be a problem. The level of partitioning is sensitive.
Install the software
I will divide the Linux software into three parts for the convenience of discussion.
Native Linux Software: General Linux software.
Snap / Flatpak / Appimage: These are actually called native. But there are differences in management.
Software for other systems. For example, some Windows software can be run on WINE, Proton Crossover, etc.
You will regularly find most major open source apps in the repository of Linux operating systems. Apps that are not in the repo, or have a more traditional version, have some extra alternative methods. For example, .deb in Ubuntu-based Distro, which is a lot similar.exe in Windows, PPA, or Personal Package Archive, where there may be one or more extra apps, AUR or Arch User Repository in Arch-based Distro. The difference is that PPAs are isolated, a PPA can have various apps, and AUR integrated, all in one place. A different method, which is not so extremely needed by ordinary users, is built from the beginning.
Then we talk about Snap and Flatpak, and these two are extremely close in practical terms. There are two methods to install and manage software in an equivalent way in all Linux distros. Guidance on Snap and Flatpack apps and their installation are prepared from Snap Store and Flathub, sequentially. Although Snap is centralized, Flatpak is not fully centralized. That is, some Flatpack apps can be found in third-party sources outside of Flathub.
There is no obligation to install in case of an app image. The app includes everything in one file. Can be downloaded and completed and used immediately. AppImage, however, has no necessary repo. However, there are several app images. Commonly, it can be performed from Properties.
Remarkable Windows apps can run on Linux, not all apps. At its core is WINE, a compatibility layer. Then Proton, PlayOnLinux, Crossover (paid it), etc., all of which are WINE based. Nevertheless, we will not explain this in detail today.
As several of us know, Linux does not own virus-malware. That is not entirely true. However, the chances of getting affected are indeed meager, and antivirus is not frequently needed. There are numerous reasons for this. I think one of the big purposes is the ease of getting the software. When we go to download software on Windows, we frequently download viruses.
It is most trustworthy to install software from the original repo. Then there is the standard PPA, .deb, AUR, Snap, Flatpak, Appimage, etc., of any software. It is regularly safe to install from Flathub or Snap Store, although malware was already found in the Snap app, that is a rare case. It is best to be aware of accuracy when downloading or installing from third party sources.
You will normally find a software manager in Linux Distro to install the software. The software is sorted into several categories and can be effortlessly downloaded by finding the required software. Software managers may differ depending on the configuration. Before-mentioned as Ubuntu / Fedora / Jarin OS: Software (gnome-software), Linux Mint: Software Manager, Manjaro: Pamac, KDE Neon / Kubuntu: Discover, Elementary: App Center, etc. Currently, most of them support Snap and Flatpak.
Although the names and looks are several, they are all simple to use. We need to start the software manager, find the app of our selection by category, or search. Various software managers offer the possibility of selecting software sources, i.e., from which source the primary repo, Snap, Flatpak, will be installed. The beginning must be installed correctly. And, yes, passwords are normally required during installation. If you have set the installation time or changed it succeeding, you need to practice that password. The software can be easily updated or removed with the installation of the software.
Command line method
After using Linux for a while, you will realize that it is easier to do multiple things on the command line than graphically. As the graphical software manager loads, it may be a few late to search for software. It is possible to do it quicker in the command line. Debian-based systems, including Ubuntu and Mint, use Pacman in arch-based ways, including apt and manjaro.
Suppose I require to install VLC, GIMP, Inkscape, LibreOffice each. Giving and connecting every search from the software manager is a little time-consuming. But I need only one command in the command line, sudo apt install vlc gimp Inkscape LibreOffice if Debian based and sudo Pacman -S vlc gimp Inkscape LibreOffice if arch-based.
Here sudo means superuser do. Directly put, this command will give us administrative power. Normally, an administrator password is needed when using the sudo command. Apt (Advanced Package Tool) and Pacman are two command-line package managers. By writing install and -S, apt, and Pacman are speaking about installing software individually. It’s fundamentally apt-get but apt. Then the package name is regularly written in lowercase letters externally any spaces. If there is more further than one package, you have to give space in between.
So now we look at the commands needed to use apt,Software Database Update: sudo apt update
Install software: sudo apt install package1 package2.
Upgrade to the latest version of all software: sudo apt upgrade
Software uninstall: sudo apt remove package1 package2.
Uninstall software with configuration information: sudo apt purge package1 package2.
Remove unnecessary dependency: sudo apt autoremove
In the case of pacman,
Software Database Update: sudo pacman -Syy
Software install: sudo pacman -S package1 package2.
Upgrade to the latest version of all software: sudo pacman -Syu
Software uninstall: sudo asudo pacman -R package1 package2.
Uninstall software with configuration information: sudo pacman -Rn package1 package2.
Uninstall software with unnecessary dependencies: sudo -Rs package1 package2.
Uninstall software with configuration information and unnecessary dependencies: sudo -Rsn package1 package2.
PPA useThere are methods to add PPA graphically. For example, in Ubuntu Software & Updates App> Software Sources> Other Software> Add here you have to add ppa: ppa_name. transmissionbt To add this PPA, type ppa: transmissionbt. Using the command line is usually convenient.
PPA add command: sudo add-apt-repository ppa: ppa_name
PPA Removal Command: sudo add-apt-repository –remove ppa: ppa_name
Pamac is particularly popular among graphical package managers in arch-based distros. To check AUR here, you require to enable AUR from Pamac’s Menu> Preferences> AUR> Enable AUR Support. In the largest cases, including the command line, no tools are usually pre-installed for the command line. Manually build from the beginning. However, various command-line AUR managers, including yay, can be installed.